History of the resort Yangan-Tau

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Several hundred years ago, the amazing effects of Yangan-Tau Mountain were found out by a local shepherd who decided to be covered from rain in a small pit by the roots of an old tree on Karakosh-Tau slope. Suddenky he noticed warm steam coming up from the bottom of the pit. And very soon, after having spent several nights in the dug-out he felt himself much better – the pains in his joints that have been tormenting him for many years passed away. Shortly after, other local residents started to heal their diseases with the mountain warms.  
Since then, the mountain called "Yangantau, which translated from the Bashkir means "burning." Bashkirs considered this mountain sacred. People with diseases started coming here. Earlier this mountain called Karakoshtau (Berkuts Mountain). Bashkirs called her so because there were many eagles. Despite the fact that the local residents since time immemorial knew about the healing value of Mountain Yangantau, the first mention of it in the literature was in 1773 in the book by Peter Simon Pallas, "Travels along different provinces of the Russian Empire." In 1770 during an expedition to the territory of Bashkortostan Pallas on the way from Ufa to Chelyabinsk was visited Mountain Yangantau.

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Peter Simon Pallas

In may 26, 1770 he wrote in his diary: «"Very thin, hot steam trembling against the sun is coming out from the open clefts and it is impossible to touch it by hand and when you throw birch barks or dry wooden chips they are caught by the flame immediately, and when there is a bad weather and dark nights it seems like a thin red flame or fire ball with some meters high."»
He explained that the reason of formation such «hot steam» is underground fire. Local residents tells that 12 - 15 years ago, during a thunderstorm, on the top of a tall tree struck by lightning, the tree caught fire and scientist think that the cause of a fire in the bowels of the earth is fire given by the trees roots.

               Feodosiy Nikolaevich Chernyshev

In 1881, Academician F.N. Chernyshev visited the mountain. He explained that the cause of the temperature does not exceed 35 - 37 ° is the hydrochemical processes with separation of heat. Later observations made by Chernyshev in 1883, 1884, and 1885, forced him to change his mind. In 1886, in a published report, "About researching produced in the region adjacent to the ridge of the Kara- Tau" he writes that "it is reasonable to explain the existence everything above the underground fire." In the 1907-1909 SS Petrov was visited the Mountain, he thought like Chernyshev, and explained the thermal anomaly with exothermic reactions occurring inside the mountain. The first mention in the literature about the use of heat for therapeutic purposes was in an article published in 1914 in the journal "Messenger of the Orenburg educational district." 
After the October Revolution, researching on the thermal anomaly of the Yangantau mountains conducted and continued to explore the possibility of the practical use of heat. In the Soviet period, Bashkir geologist, Professor G.V. Vakhrouchev was studied the Yangantau Mountain. He repeatedly visited Yangantau (1926, 1953, 1956, 1957), and wrote many articles on geology mountain, its hydrogeology, and the thermal phenomena occurring in the bowels of the mountain. In 1932, famous German scientist balneologists A. Bickel with expedition of the regional health department visited the Mount Yangantau, argued for a possible magmatic origin of the thermal gases from deep crustal zones rise pair yuvenials water, like the one that stands out in active volcanic processes. The new study period began in the mountains Yangantau in 1932 by Bashkir Geological trest. In that period was conducted surveying mountains, conducted chemical analyzes of steam and dry gas jets and drilled the first exploration well depth of 70 m. In 1933, Ural-Siberian hydro Party supervised by AI Dzens – Lugovskay worked in Yangantau that allowed the possibility of beginning the process of lightning. Since 1934, the problem of thermal anomalies of the mountain begins to explore the expedition of State Central Scientific Research Institute of Health Resort, studied physical and chemical properties of gases and vapors. According to the expedition, the gas temperature in the cracks near the surface of the ground in some places reaches 151 °C. The expedition concluded that to uncover the essence of thermal anomalies and medicinal properties Yangantau mountains, you must first arrange a clinical observation on patients, the attending there, and after asking medicinal properties make geological exploration. The 1920s mass visits of the mountains for medicinal purposes began. Back in 1925 at the foot of the mountain by commune "Chulpan" created the wooden house - hospital for sick leave thermal procedures, built a small wooden hut - a hostel for the sick and started economic exploitation of the mountains with pay baths. In 1935, Bashnarkomzdrav built a stationary hospital with 15 beds during the summer operation at Mount Yangantau. On April 2, 1937, the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Bashkir ASSR adopted a decree "On the construction of the resort Yangantau Maloyaz district." This summer on the mountain, a clinical development station was organized that operated in the summer months in 1937, 1938 and 1939. Experimental and clinical station were located on the top of the mountain, and in 1939 had 11 buildings , including 3 homes for inpatients, outpatients 1 house and office , 1 house - kitchen, 1 house laboratory, one house - hostel workers and one bathing building two houses for employees and one house pantry. All the houses were wooden, and many were not plastered inside. In addition, 5 portable cabins were built for receiving separate individual bathrooms. The main objective of the clinical development station was clinical observation on curative factors of the Yangantau Mountains. At the station, the following databases organized clinic; Clinical Unit (hospital); Laboratory; bath department. Ambulance worked for 4 months. Accepted patients were those with chronic arthritis, polyarthritis, and neuritis. Some of the patients lived on the farm "Chulpan." Most of the outpatients settled in tents near the clinical station. Clinical Department of the hospital had 20 beds in 1937, 30 in 1938, and 40 in 1939 where they received patients with diseases of the joints and nerves.

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                                 The first buildings                                                                                                         Steam baths   

The opening of the Experimental Station on Yangantau, marks the development of the first methods of treatment, indications and contraindications, and studying the effectiveness of treatment, its scientific basis, and the development of small hospitals to the resort and modern resorts associated with a prominent scientist, Honored Doctor of the RSFSR and doctor of medical sciences, Professor Geniatulla Nigmatullovich Teregulov (1891 - 1984). He was the first director of clinical experimental station and its scientific director. He collected scientific material during the 1937 - 1939 on the effect of the bathrooms at Yangantau on the patients. GN Teregulov summarized all materials in his monograph, "The warm Yangantau mountain and its therapeutic value in diseases of the joints" (1941).
 Teregulov for nearly four decades, until the end of his life, was a permanent consultant and scientific director of the "Yangan-Tau ".resort.

                 Geniatulla Nigmatullovich Teregulov

    From 1938 - 1941 S.Y. Yulbaev was the head physician of the sanatorium. From 1941 –1945, the head physician of the sanatorium was Gabidullin.
    During the Great Patriotic War, a base hospital for 200 beds organized in Yangantau branch number 2575, where the seriously wounded soldiers treated with gunshot injuries of bones of limb joints. Many soldiers after treatment from Yangantau returned to duty.  
ВIn 1945, at Mount Yangantau Bashkir ASSR Ministry of Health created a sanatorium for 100 persons that worked seasonally (from May 15 to September 15).  
In 1945-1947, the head physician of the sanatorium is SY Yulbaev. In 1947 - 1950, the head physician of the sanatorium is Kuramshina.
In June 18, 1953 Ministry of Health of the RSFSR approved a draft geological work on the mountain Yangantau, based on which, in 1953 – 1961 Roskurortgeopart of the Ministry of Health of the RSFSR has been researching work led by the mining engineer V.V. Shtilmark. 12 wells with depths ranging from 18 to 36 m, and one - 106 m (well 5y) were drilled. During the study revealed a general pattern for all wells: temperature increase with depth and after reaching a maximum reduction of it is newly. Show the maximum temperature recorded at a depth of 80 m (5y) - 377, 8 °. Above and below this temperature level lowered. The temperature at the bottom (depth 106.1 m) drops to 245 °. Because of these studies, it found that the content of carbon dioxide, moisture and thermal temperature gases divided into three main types. Based on the analysis put forward a new hypothesis for the origin of thermal phenomena, according to which the heat is a result of the exothermic oxidation of organic substances contained in bituminous rocks of the mountain. Past calculations showed that supplies the organic substances that are not touched by oxidation is quite significant and can provide a thermal-oxidative process for a long time. According to G.V. Vakhrushev (1961) , this process will continue for another 850 - 1700 years, according to the hypothesis V.V. Shtilmark (1958) as a result of a process that began in the bowels of the mountain 20 - 25 thousand years ago , to date, spent no more than one third of the initial stock of organic matter.

 Georgy Petrovich Fedorov He was born in 1896 in the Pskov region in the village Vasilyevo in a poor peasant family. Since 1911, he started his career. In 1917, he mobilized into the tsarist army. In March 1918, voluntarily joined the Red Army in the commandant's special detachment, participated in the defeat of Kolchak as a common soldier, political officer, secretary of the party bureau of Special Forces. In 1925, he discharged.
In 1949, transferred by the Ministry of Health BASSR to the sanatorium Yangantau as an assistant of chief doctor. In 1950, he transferred to the position of director of the sanatorium. In 1953, due to family circumstances at his own request transferred to a sanatorium. In 1953, he transferred to the T.S. Aksakova sanatorium for the same position.
After G.P. Fedorov, head physicians of the sanatorium were S.P. Goryachev and P.I. Smyshlyaev.

 Nikolay Dmitrievich Ivanov. He was born in 1917 in Belebeevsky area in a poor peasant family. In 1925 - 1934 studied in high school. In 1937 - 1938 went to study at the Ufa medical school. In 1939 – 1946 worked as a military medical assistant. In 1947, he entered at the Bashkir Medical Institute, and in 1952 sent to work in Yangantau. 
Until 1957, he worked as the head physician. In March 1957 was adopted a resolution (№ 795) "On the extension and improvement of the resort Yangantau" by the Council of Ministers Bashkir ASSR. In these period begun the construction of two two-storey stone housings, power station, sanitary inspection, laundry, logistics warehouse.  
Resort for the first time goes on year-round job. 

Zakir Shakirovich Baykov. He was born in 1924. He left school in 9th grade and went at the war. After the war, he graduated from high school and entered at the Bashkir Medical Institute. After graduation, he sent to the Yangantau as chief physician (1957). His wife Rima Bagdanurovna Baykova was attending physician. She led all clinical work alone; there were no other doctors in the sanatorium.

Haniya Safiullovna Fayzullina. She worked as the head physician of the sanatorium in 1959 - 1961. 

Lydia Mikhailovna Sergeyeva. She was born in Novosibirsk region. In 1938, she graduated from the 10th grade and entered at the medical school in Omsk. After graduation, she joined the Red Army. In 1961, she moved to Republic of Bashkortostan. She worked as an intern in the sanatorium Yangantau. Since November 1961, she transferred to the post of the head physician. In October 3, 1962, she resigned for health reasons. 

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Rashid Shagabutdinovich Akbashev

Rashid Shagabutdinovich Akbashev. He was born in May 29, 1933 in the village Adzitarovo, Karmaskalinsky area Bashkir ASSR in a peasant family. In 1950, he graduated Buzovyazovskuy high school, than he entered in the Bashkir State Medical University and graduated in 1957.  
In 1954 - 1956, he studied at the Military Medical Faculty of the Kuibyshev Medical Institute.  
In 1956 – he was a chief in the Tryapinskiy medical clinic (BASSR).
In 1962-1994, he worked as the head physician of the sanatorium Yangan-Tau 
His monographs: "Healing factors of the resort “Yangan-Tau”" (1973), "Home medical manual" (1997). His 4 non-fiction books: "The resort “Yangan-Tau”." More than 100 scientific papers (articles) published.
In 1975, he defended his thesis for the degree of candidate of medical sciences. 
In 1967, he awarded the title "Honorary Doctor of the Bashkir ASSR. 
In 1993, he awarded the title "Honorary Doctor of the Russian Federation."

In 1965, on Mount Yangantau was begun construction of a model of a sanatorium developed based on the Leningrad branch of the Design Institute of Ministry of Health of the RSFS. The construction led the major construction companies of the Republic ("Vostoknefteprovodstroj", "Bashselstroy", "Bashneftoezavodstroy", etc.).

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Sanatorium "Yangan-Tau" 1968

In 1970 Raul Gilmutdinovich Farkhutdinov In 1970, at the sanatorium "Yangan Tau" defended his doctoral thesis on the treatment of patients with glomerulonephritis in the resort Yangantau. Due to this work, in "Yangan-Tau" was firstly organized treatment of patients with nephritic profile.  
In the summer of 1981 the Chairman of the Trade Unions A.I. Shebaev together with the First Secretary of the Regional Party Committee of the Bashkir MZ Shakirov visited Yangantau and adopted a joint Resolution of the Presidium of the Trade Unions and the Regional Party Committee of the Bashkir on the further development of health resolution business in the Republic, including the resort "Yangan-Tau." This fact was a great importance in the further development of the resort "Yangan-Tau." After the Regulation, were built housings number 4 and number 5, on the dining room number 2 with 500 seats, the gas pipeline Arkaul - Yangantau. In 1989 at the housing number 2 was opened department of "Mother and Child" with 100 beds for the treatment of children with renal diseases and disease of urinary tract.
In 1987, the sanatorium "Yangan - Tau" recognized as the best in the USSR.
On the 50th anniversary of the sanatorium "Yangan - Tau" a popular scientific film "Yangantau" was created. The film premiered at Central Television.
      In 1992, housing № 5 (now housing № 1) on 200 beds, was built by the USSR Ministry of Transport and facilities. Number of seats in the sanatorium has increased from 125 in 1962 to 1,000 beds in 1993. At the same time with the creating of medical base (1962 - 1993) of the resort, modern houses on 250 apartments for the staff of the sanatorium, a secondary school, a nursery-garden with 50 seats, trade and consumer services built. 
In 1991 - 1992 Austrian design Rudolph Shayher, plan to build a new medical complex with the inclusion building of the steam therapy center at the resort "Yangan-Tau." 
   In 1992, CJSC "Warm Mountain" which included the largest industrial enterprises and banks of the Republic of Bashkortostan formed to raise funds for further development of the resort "Yangan-Tau" 
Project of the global reconstruction of the resort was booked on the collected money. (Later construction of steam therapy center begun. For short term - in one year - a new modern steam therapy center built and put into operation).  

Rashid Shagabutdinovich Akbashev - a great expert of local legends. He revived the famous legend about the shepherd, who found refuge in bad weather - in the pit with warm - on Berkutova Mountain. After a few nights, his aching of the hands and feet was stopped... To Akbashev have told a legend that a long time ago, in the era of mythical youth of the world, dazzling star fell on Yangantau. Star crumbled on rocks, trees broken and fire went around the slopes. Farther and farther....


Recently, February 15, 2013, cosmic body flew over the mountain Yangantau comet and fell quite close - the lake Chebarkul ("Beautiful Lake").

Twenty years ago, in September 1985, workers removed unusual thing resembling a meteorite when excavation for a swimming pool.

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Is it really that once fiery messenger of heaven ignited mountain and folk memory has kept this event? The fact of finding a meteorite on the mountain near the thermal kernel can elucidate the puzzle of mountains heat. It is possible that the fall of the meteorite and introduced by them in the fall and thermal shock energy could affect the mode and intensity of thermal processes occurring in the depths of this unique mountain, giving people the healing warmth.

In 1983, R.S. Akbashev elected as a Board member of society at the VIII Congress of the All-Union Society balneologists and physiotherapists. From 1982 to 1994 - He was a member of the Central Council of Trade Unions of the resort management. In 1990, he elected a deputy of the RSFSR. In 1992 - 1995, he elected as executive director of CJSC "Warm Mountain." From 1994 to present - He is a member of the World Scientific Medical Society balneologists and climatologists (health resort). His awards: "Badge of Honor," a medal "for valor"; "For Valiant Labor" "In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of Lenin's birth," "Veteran of Labor"; "For merits in development of resorts in Russia"; "60 Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War." His honorary titles: "Excellence in Health service", "Excellence of resorts Soviet trade unions." His honorable mentions: the CPSU Central Committee, USSR Council of Ministers, the Trade Unions and the Komsomol Central Committee; Diploma Leninist Komsomol Central Committee; Central Council of Trade Unions resorts Management (1967, 1983); In 2012 - R. S. Akbashev awarded the title of "Honorary Citizen of Salavat district of Bashkortostan." Chairperson of the Board of Veterans sanatorium "Yangan-Tau." 

Ishtimir Shagalievich Huramshin. He was born in August 15, 1951 in the village 1-rst Idelbaevo, Salavat area, BASSR. In 1968, he graduated from Arkauls high school and entered at the Bashkir State Medical Institute, after which he worked as a neurologist, as a head of the department in the district and city hospitals. He studied at the intenship and magistrature. He has a master's thesis. From 1994 to 2001 - worked as the head physician of the resort "Yangan-Tau." In 2007, Ishtimer Shagalievich Huramshin released book "Shaping teplogenerativnogo process and spa medical factors "Yangan-Tau"designed for physiotherapists of the health resort, where the stated hypothesis on the origin and formation process on the bowels of theYangantau Mountain, determined the cause of depression and given thermal forecasting. Ishtimeru Shagalievich Huramshin awarded the honorary title "Honorary Doctor of the Republic of Bashkortostan." When Ishtimer Shagalievich worked was built the building of the modern steam therapy center (designed by Austrian architect Rudolph Shayher); housing № 6 (1996), Leisure Centre (1998). In 1994 – 1995, built new houses, a garage. Created a new high school and fourplex house for teachers. In 1996, interfarms dispensary "Chulpan" attached to the sanatorium and held global reconstruction. The 55th anniversary of the Great Victory the Memorial of granite, dedicated to the memory of soldiers and heroic deeds – residents of villages in the territory of the Yangantau village council erected. A documentary film about the sanatorium "Yangan-Tau", in Russian and English - about the life and work of a unique health resort was shot. Artistic and decorative composition "Memorial sign" dedicated to visiting Yangantau Mountains, May 26, 1770, academician PS Pallas told about it in his book "Journey in various provinces of the Russian Empire" (1773) was installed. Decorative composition facing by remarkable properties of Burning Mountains was installed opposite the "Memorable sign." Cable TV set the TV held in each room for the first time. Their own TV station organized and TV regularly aired with the gears on the resort theme. In May 6, 2000, First President of the Republic of Bashkortostan Murtaza Rakhimov signed a decree "On measures to develop sanatorium system RB", that approved the new concept development Bashkir resorts. The main purpose of the developed on behalf of the republican government was the creation of the Concept modern unified spa complex.

Ramil Rafailovich Badretdinov. He was born in January 17, 1958, in the Elanysh village, Mechetlinsk area, BASSR. He graduated from the Bashkir State Medical Institute in 1982. In 2001-2012, he was a Director of the SUE resort "Yangan-Tau" of Republic of Bashkortostan. RR Badretdinov is "Honored Worker of Health of the Russian Federation"; "Honorary Doctor of the Republic of Bashkortostan"; "Honored Builder of the Republic of Bashkortostan. During this period were constructed: in place of the demolished wooden buildings - dry-air therapy center; health and fitness complex; cottages in the tourist complex; skiing complex; cafe "Goldfish"; pump room and bath and laundry facility. Hotel and service complex put into operation.  

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                                 Engels Varisovich Kulmuhametov   
Engels Varisovich Kulmuhametov. Born in October 1, 1951, in the Maloyaz village, Salavatsky district, the Republic of Bashkortostan. 
In 1974, he graduated from the Ufa Petroleum Institute; the speciality is "A mechanical engineer by automation."
He defended his thesis on the topic - "Managing the implementation of national projects in the social sphere: the case of the Republic of Bashkortostan").
In 1976, he was an Engineer in the Office of the Central Laboratory of the Ural-Siberian trunk pipelines.
In 1978, he elected as second secretary of the Soviet Komsomol district committee of Ufa.
In 1980, he appointed as an instructor of the Soviet District Party Committee of Ufa.
In 1981-1986, he was a First Secretary of Ufa City Komsomol Committee.
When he graduated from the MIA Academy, he served in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
1In 1988-1991, he was a Deputy Head of Division, a Head of the Public Security 
Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
In 1994, he was a Director of the tax police in the Republic of Bashkortostan.
In 1995, he was a Head of the Federal Tax Police Service of the Russian Federation in the Republic of Bashkortostan.
In 2002, he was a Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Bashkortostan on fuel and energy complex.
In 2002, he was a Chief Federal Inspector in the Republic of Bashkortostan Plenipotentiary Representative of the Russian President in the Volga Federal District.
In 2007, he was an Advisor to the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
In 2007-2011, he was a Secretary of the regional political council of Bashkortostan Branch of Russian political party "United Russia".
Deputy of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of the fifth convocation.
Member of the Committee for Security of the State Duma of the Russian Federation..
Lieutenant-General of the tax police. Honored Lawyer of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Fellow tax police. 
His awards: Order of "Salavat Yulaev"; "Order of Friendship of Peoples"; Medal "for valor"; Medal of the Order "For Services to the Fatherland II degree"; Honorary Diploma of the Republic of Bashkortostan ", the Diploma of the State Assembly of Bashkortostan-Kurultaj; Honorary Diploma of the Government of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Diploma of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, the Diploma of Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.

Since 2012, Engels Varisovich Kulmuhametov – is Director of SUE resort "Yangan-Tau"the Republic of Bashkortostan. PhD in Economics. Deputy of the State Assembly-Kurultaj Republic of Bashkortostan.
Standards provided in the resort "Yangan-Tau" in the quality of products (goods and services) in 2012, brought the first place in the competition for the Prize of the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan and awarded a first degree and the Cup of the President of Bashkortostan. The resort is the unique resort, the indicators of which put him in one rank with industry leaders and organizations of the republic.
Mud therapy center and modern SPA-center with herbal tearoom and a full range of health services was finished construction.
For the 75th anniversary International Scientific and Practical Conference "Spa treatment and medical rehabilitation held.
A book of remembrance "Yangantau - miraculous mountain" published.
Historical and educational film about the unique health resort on the burning mountain created.
Historical Museum of the resort "Yangan-Tau" recreated and reconstructed. The marble bust of the founder and the first head of the resorts Geniatulla Nigmatullovich Teregulov installed in special place in the landscape park of the resort.
Originally designed Maritime Museum "Caravel" opened. Of great interest is the resort offers a unique collection of artifacts representing the bizarre world of the inhabitants of the deep sea.

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